Public Speaking – Speech Giving Versus Presenting

As a seasoned public speaker of many venues, I can tell you there’s a big difference between giving a speech and giving a presentation. One cannot, of course, teach presentation skills without teaching basic speech skills, and vice versa. The two are closely related in terms of understanding how to use body language, voice, eye contact and other techniques. But while there are many similar and overlapping skills, the difference lies in the objective.

Let’s start with giving a Speech.

If you’ve taken any speech classes in college, you’ve probably heard there are three types of speeches: informative, persuasive and entertaining. While this is fairly accurate, it won’t help in discerning between speeches and presenting because many think they are one in the same. But they are not.

Primarily, the purpose of a speech is to simply deliver a message. Often, a speech does not require the use of visual aids because a good speech can actually stand on its own without support or explanation. At the end of an effective speech, an audience will be stirred into thinking in a way or doing something they may not have before hearing it.

But most of us of in everyday life will generally hear two kinds of speeches: the kind that entertain and the kind that aim to change thinking or attitudes. After-dinner speeches and wedding toasts are in the former camp, most others in the latter. The “change” speeches can still have entertaining elements, but their purpose goes beyond that. Consider eulogies, for example. A eulogy is, or should be, in honor of the deceased. It should therefore connect with, and hopefully uplift the hearts of the mourners. It’s a speech, not a presentation, and the intention is to generate affection and good feelings.

Speeches are often, but not always, written out word for word and are given by individuals who normally don’t speak to crowds, or at least don’t regularly engage in public speaking (presidential speeches are an obvious exception). This is why a person giving a speech can and is usually expected to read the speech from paper or a teleprompter. An experienced speech giver, however, will still attempt to make the reading sound like he or she is actually talking to the audience at a personal level rather than just reading to no one in particular.

Many speeches also tend to be formal in nature. Consider how graduation speeches or State of the Union Addresses are delivered. Because of the formality, the speech would sound very similar from one audience and situation to another. But while it’s true that from some speeches there have been spontaneous outpourings of impromptu words and passion, most stay within the script.

Now let’s talk about Presenting.

A presentation needs a proposition and typically, a call to the audience for decisive action afterward. A good presenter understands that he or she is putting on a performance to a degree. Presenting is a form of art, a direct connection with an audience that engages people on intellectual and emotional levels. It should be designed to give an audience an experience, not just information. Presentations involve more entertainment, more senses and more activity from both the speaker and audience. An effective presentation is an orchestration of many pieces of many things to enhance the message.

Presentations tend to be less formal and the material should not be delivered by means of reading from a script. In fact, they should never be written word for word, or even memorized word for word. A seasoned presenter knows how to use notes with just key or “trigger” words to remind him or her of what to say. Also, presentations will often employ storytelling that the presenter can do off the cuff and from the heart.

The beauty of a presentation is that the presenter can be spontaneous and add, modify, or eliminate material according to the audience’s reaction or things like distractions or time constraints. This is why the same presentation can be delivered in vastly differently ways depending on the crowd and venue. And unlike speeches, presentations often will involve the use of visual aids to stir emotion or drive a point. At the end of a presentation, if the presenter has been effective, audience members will not only be moved to do something afterwards, they will also have some new knowledge in their mental arsenal to take away.

Finally, another purpose of presentations is to make a sale. A presentation geared toward selling is an emotionally compelling one designed to create a perceived need to buy the product, whatever it may be. Everything the presenter does and shows will be engineered to create and feed that need. Such a speaker will usually have books or DVDs or sign-up sheets waiting in the back.

In summary, if you’re going to be a speaker at some engagement and trying to decide what format to use, a good question to ask is: What is the purpose of my talk? The answer to that question will help you decide what you’re there to do for your audience, what they expect, and how you’re going to deliver it.

Your Past Can Benefit Your Present!

Unlike an investment, your past success can be an indicator of future success. Jim Collins, author of Good to Great, replied in the FAQ section of his book that Robert Burgleman, one of his favorite professors at Stanford Business School taught him, “The single biggest danger in business and life other than outright failure, is to be successful without being resolutely clear about why you are successful in the first place.”

Have you made a connection to the patterns of thoughts, emotions and behaviours that creates your success? A connection to WHY you are successful provides you with a keen awareness and a road map of familiar patterns of thoughts/emotions/habits that you can adapt to present day realities to improve your effectiveness towards desired achievements.

Like many people when faced with new challenges or adversity your initial thought is probably not…OH YEAH! another obstacle for me to overcome! Your initial thought is probably alone the lines of WHY ME? or WHY NOW? I’ll give you the answer that I state to myself once I get pass my moments of “this couldn’t be happening to ME!”… SHIFT Happens.

SHIFT Happens implies change. Most of us say we want change but then when it occurs without our consent our response to it implies just the opposite. Our acceptance and ability to adapt to changing realities can and often does dictate our level of progress in life. Consider the steps that it took for you to learn how to read at various grade levels, if you had not been flexible and open to new learnings you would have not been promoted to the next grade level!

At each new grade level you were expected to use what you had previously learned as the foundation for the next grade level of studies. Year after year you built a foundation of academic progress based on previous academic success. Your patterns of perceptions, feelings and actions from one year to the next influenced your effectiveness and progress as a student.

Your Action Plan: Make a list of your top five achievements. Underneath each achievement list three to five dominant thoughts, emotions and daily habits which led to your success. Decide how you can adapt these thoughts, emotions and habits into your present reality to create the desired progress and success you want to experience. Your success is a clue to what you can do!

Business Negotiation Strategy in Each Stage

Business negotiation strategy has a wide range. However, there are different strategies in each stage according to the practice.

2.3.1 The strategy of the first phase
a. Consensus-style
Apply: there is no business between the two sides before; their strength are close for the first contact.
Practice: he uses of diplomatic language, and chooses a neutral topic, with the attitude of respect for each other, neither overbearing nor servile.

b. Frank style
Apply: the two sides had business dealings before, and a better understanding of each other. Their relations are very good; and strength is less than the other negotiators.
Practice: he gives a sincere, passionate talk about the friendly and cooperative relations in the past, and frankly takes the views of one’s own statements as well as the expectations of each other; and frankly show one’s own weaknesses

c. Carefully opening ceremony
Apply: the negotiating parties have had business dealings over the past but the other side had not a satisfactory performance
Practice: he expresses regret that the inadequacies of the other party in the past and hope that they can change this situation through this cooperation. In no hurry to reduce the relationship, he uses of a courtesy question to check each other’s attitudes and thoughts.

d. Start-style attack
Apply: the other side is condescending, and has the tendency to force and do not respect one’s own side
Practice: he should be rational and advantage, and to hit the key issues and he can not be too aggressive, to change their practices in a right time.

2.3.2 The strategy of the pricing stage
First, prices starting point strategy

a. suspended construction of the high-profile (Continental quote)
It refers to a negotiation strategy that a seller makes a higher price than the actual requirements in the starting point and bargains with the opponent and makes concessions to reach an agreement.
Do: outcry hard; make concessions slowly
Methods to deal with: ask for basis of quotation or counter-offer.

b. throw the ball down (Japanese-style quotations)
It refers to a negotiation strategy that first of all the seller propose a lower starting point than actual requirements of its own for negotiations in order to attract each other, trying to beat the opponent who take part in the competition, and then take real negotiations with the buyer who be tempted to hook, force them to make concessions to reach their own purpose.
Methods to deal with: first, the buyers compare and calculate the contents of the bid of each other with other vendors’, and straightforward to raise objections. Second, he is not tempted by the small profit of the other side.
Second, division pricing strategy
Divisor is commodity prices and dividend is that quantity of goods or the use of time. It comes up with a very small price. So buyers feel price cheap and low.
Third, adder pricing strategy
In business negotiations, sometimes it is afraid that high prices offered will scare customers. The price had gradually broken down into several levels to make a number of quotations. And the final total is still equal to the original one-time price.
Fourth, differences in pricing
According to the nature of the customer, the number of purchase, trading hours, the payment ways, it adopts a different pricing strategy.
Fifth, Comparison Price
It refers to the other side point out quotations of similar commodity of many businesses which is beneficial for one’s own side to establish reference prices, and then make comparisons between these goods traded and similar goods of businesses in terms of performance, quality, service, and other transaction conditions, and as the basis of price for this side.
Sixth, the number traps
He shows their cost of production of goods to the buyer to support the reasonableness of the total price.
Apply situation: it is a multi-commodity trading, the complex cost, no uniform standard method of calculating the cost, or each other is very offensive to use the case.

2.3.3 The strategy in consultation phase
First, negotiation strategy under the conditions of the advantages
a. do not set a precedent
in the negotiations, it means a party who hold the advantage in order to adhere and raise their own terms of trade to use no precedent as reason for refusing to make concessions, let the other side to accept their conditions.
It is a good way to refuse the other party and do not injure the face of the other party.

b. the first bitter; after sweet
first in the negotiations use harsh conditions to cast doubt on the other side, depression of mind, etc., in order to significantly reduce the opponent’s expectations, and then gradually in the actual negotiations, make concessions step by step, to make each other’s psychology have been met and reach a agreement.

c. the price trap
It refers to the party use of market prices increased trends expected, as well as the widespread concerns psychological, to attract the other sides on the price to let them neglect other important provisions.

d. period strategy
It refers to business negotiations, a strong party put forward the time limit to reach an agreement. Over this period, sponsors will withdraw from the negotiations, as to put pressure on the other side to make a decision as soon as possible.

e. diversionary
In order to achieve a particular purpose and needs, one’s own side consciously direct the subject of consultations to irrelevant false momentum, transfer their attention in order to realize their goals

f. the head start
In the start of the negotiations through the use of one’s own strengths and characteristics, in order to seize the psychological advantage, and he seizes the initiative.

Second, negotiation strategy under the conditions of the disadvantages
a. fault-finding
In Business negotiations, in response to each other’s products or related issues, he over and over again deliberately finds problems and the other side’s confidence will drop, and so to make concessions.
The key point is that critical issues should be raised rightly.

b. take a soft approach to meet the other’s hard attitude
When there is a crisis situation in the negotiations or the other side does not make concessions, and he can take a soft approach to meet each other’s hard attitude to avoid facing conflict, so as to achieve the purpose.
The main points: the use of indirect tactics, insisted reasoning

c. woolly-headed
It is defensive strategy is that in the event of adverse situations, pretending to confuse, and use it as cover to paralysis of the will to fight each other in order to achieve the purpose and muddle through.

d. tired tactics
It refers to the negotiations like the marathon, and gradually wear down the opponent’s spirit, to fatigue, to reverse the own side’s disadvantage and passive of the situation, when the opponent exhausted, dizziness brain up, the party may be anti – from defensive to offensive, with the attitude of reasoning, put the views of this side to reduce the other side to accept the conditions.

e. power is limited
It refers to business negotiations, the weaker party was asked to make excessive concessions on certain conditions to the other side. They claim that the mandate on this issue is limited, and have no right to make such a concession to the other party, or established fact can not be changed in order to make the other side give up conditions. f. turn around telling. It refers to the party at a disadvantage, let the other side to pay more for the negotiations, so that they change from passive to active, to turn disadvantage to advantage.

Third, negotiation strategy under the conditions of the balance of power
a. testing the waters
The negotiators intended to propose a number of assumptions, through the other side responses and answers to detect the other side’s intentions and seize the good opportunity to make a deal.

b. first rally; after counter
It refers to after the other side make offer, in no hurry to make a counter-offer, but point out that changes in market situation, or to emphasize the strength and advantages to build the situation in favor of the own side, and then raised prices.
Response: refused, adhering to offer, make a concession carefully

c. first “vertical” post “capture”
It refers to although the party would like to make a deal, but put on a nonchalant way, cover up their eagerness, it seems merely to satisfy the needs of the other party for the negotiations, so that the other side is eager to take the initiative to make concessions.

d. put on foolish, but clever in fact
It refers to a party put on deliberately confused, frightened, hesitant, slow response in order to let the other side down, for sufficient time to achieve the purpose.

e. for the cursory
It refers to the party at the negotiating table, encounters the key issues, or there are insurmountable differences between each other, or to remedy its own mistakes, make an excuse for their own that the decision can not be done by them, to further negotiations by another.

f. fish in troubled waters
It means in the negotiations, he deliberately disturb the normal order, and put many of the problems out once, making it difficult to meet in order to let the other side make mistakes.

g. private contacts
It means through the personal contacts, using a variety of ways to enhance understanding and emotional contact, the establishment of friendship, he can use this way to promote the negotiation.
There are many forms of private exchanges, such as telephone contact, visits, entertainment, and dinner and so on.

h. lubrication strategy
It refers to the negotiators in order to express the feelings of friendship to feed gifts for each other, for a better effect of negotiation, the West humorously referred to it as “lubrication strategy.”
To consider: cultural differences, the value of gifts, gift-giving occasions and rituals.

i. emotional transfer
It refers to when the formal negotiations have difficult impasse or obstacles, the organizers of the negotiations should be conscious to transfer the environment of the negotiations, the atmosphere and forms, so that the other side’s emotion transfer